Application Types or Tiers

Tier 1 application: An information system that is vital to the running of an organization.
Example: Software used to run Trains, Flights, Operation theaters…etc

Tier 2 application: This will cause interruption, but not critical.
Example: Ticketing software, Classroom software,…etc

Tier 3 application: Nonimportant. Without them, business operations will continue.
Example: knowledge search software, Homework software,…etc

The view will change based on ownership and need of business.
Based on the tier, the architecture will be defined for the following
1. High Availability
2. Scalability
3. Security


Business Tiers

DSL – Domain Specific Language – for business analysts

How to provide a tool for business analysts to write logic in simple English? So that it can be used by underlying software without any changes or rewriting.
Answer: DSL – Domain Specific Language

If required we need to develop DSL from scratch for a given domain.
So that BAs can write rules and that should be easy to integrate with code.

(Image from

how to create your own DSL(Domain Specific Language) in python – Python as DSL

Optimization Algorithms

DROOLS Expert Page with DSL

Software Architecture Books

UML Buying Choices: OCUP 2 Certification Guide: Preparing for the OMG Certified UML 2.5 Professional 2 Foundation Exam
by Michael Jesse Chonoles

SEI CMM Software Architecture Series Books Buying Choices: Software Architecture in Practice (3rd Edition) (SEI Series in Software Engineering)
by Len Bass et al.
Link: Buying Choices: Designing Software Architectures: A Practical Approach (SEI Series in Software Engineering)
by Humberto Cervantes et al.
Link: Buying Choices: Evaluating Software Architectures: Methods and Case Studies (SEI Series in Software Engineering) by Paul Clements (22-Oct-2001) Hardcover
by Paul Clements
Note: As a senior architect we should know how to evaluate/compare and understand existing projects. Buying Choices: Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond (2nd Edition)
by Paul Clements et al.

ATAM: Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method
CBAM: Cost-Benefit Analysis Method

TOGAF framework is very useful. Buying Choices: TOGAF Version 9.1
by Van Haren Publishing
Note: Certification helps a lot


Patterns: These are important to know and easy to re-use Buying Choices: Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture
by Martin Fowler
Link: Buying Choices: Security Patterns in Practice: Designing Secure Architectures Using Software Patterns
by Eduardo Fernandez-Buglioni
Link: Buying Choices: Head First Design Patterns: A Brain-Friendly Guide
by Eric Freeman et al.
Note: Look for the latest edition Buying Choices: Enterprise Integration Patterns: Designing, Building, and Deploying Messaging Solutions
by Gregor Hohpe et al.
Link: Buying Choices: Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software
by Eric Evans
Note: This is very important when working with specific domains like Finance, Media, Auto, Insurance,…etc Buying Choices: Service Design Patterns: Fundamental Design Solutions for SOAP/WSDL and RESTful Web Services
by Robert Daigneau


Data Buying Choices: NoSQL and SQL Data Modeling: Bringing Together Data, Semantics, and Software
by Ted Hills
Link: Buying Choices: Database Design Using Entity-Relationship Diagrams, Second Edition (Foundations of Database Design)
by Sikha Bagui et al.
Note: Buy a similar book Buying Choices: The Data Warehouse Toolkit: The Definitive Guide to Dimensional Modeling
by Ralph Kimball et al.


Software Frameworks

What Is a Framework?

Must be working on at least one in each category
RDBMS (Oracle, MS SQL, Postgres, MySQL,…etc)
NO-SQL (MongoDB, MarkLogic,..etc)
Service (Java Services, Spring, Python Flask,…etc)
UI (NodeJS, React, Angular, HTML, JS, CSS)
Reporting (Jasper, Tableau)
Data Warehousing Fundamentals
ETL (Informatica,Apache Nifi,..etc)
OS (Linux Redhat, Ubuntu,…etc
Messaging (JMS, Kafka,…etc)
Cloud (AWS,Cloudera,IBM,MS Azure,…etc)
SEI CMM Process

BigData (Hadoop,..etc )
Note: If you are coming from a non-software background, please do MS or BS in Computer Science
Or get textbooks from BS course and study in your free time.

Bible for Software Engineers Buying Choices: Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach
by Roger S. Pressman et al.

Testing Buying Choices: Foundations of Software Testing ISTQB Certification
by Rex Black et al.
Link: Buying Choices: Learning Selenium Testing Tools – Third Edition
by Raghavendra Prasad MG
Note: Check different books on Selenium
Project Management Buying Choices: PMP Exam Prep, Eighth Edition – Updated: Rita’s Course in a Book for Passing the PMP Exam
by Rita Mulcahy
Link: Buying Choices: Essential Scrum: A Practical Guide to the Most Popular Agile Process (Addison-Wesley Signature Series (Cohn))
by Kenneth S. Rubin


Requirements / UX Buying Choices: Lean UX: Designing Great Products with Agile Teams
by Jeff Gothelf et al.
Link: Buying Choices: Software Requirements (3rd Edition) (Developer Best Practices)
by Karl Wiegers et al.

Serverless Architectures

Backend as a Service or “BaaS”
Function as a Service or “FaaS” (Example:
AWS Lambda:

1. Easy to develop and deploy light weight systems.
2. Good for systems, which use less CPU and low usage. Saves money on infrastructure.

1. Enterprise scale high throughput applications need to pay more money to IBM/Amazon/.etc.
2. We need to pay for each task
1. CPU
2. Data storage
3. Disk Space
4. Total number of calls
Almost it becomes like mainframe systems.


Software Architect Catalogue

IBM Cloud Catalog

Amazon Catalog

Architectural Patterns

Software Security Patterns

Integration Patterns

Software Architecture


What Software Architect Do?

Negotiate for timelines and resources
Communicate between project stackholders
Evangiliage best practices
Identify and Mitigate Risks
Be strong in Technology/Software fundamentals (Just not white paper knowledge)
Be proficient in Agile methodologies

Software Selection and Evaluation

Quantitative Methods for Software Selection and Evaluation

A Process for COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) Software Product Evaluation